Implementation of Ailes Report
In 1963, Stephen Ailes, then Secretary of the Army, made a comprehensive survey of recruit training in the Army. The Ailes Report on recruit training recommended establishment of schools that would offer formal instruction to trainers newly assigned to duty at Army Training Centers. The project was organized at Fort Jackson during the period 1 February-17 April 1964. Personnel utilized during this phase were four scientists from Human Resources Research Office, 13 officers and 28 enlisted men from five Training Centers, the Third US Army NCO Academy personnel and facilities, and a Project Officer from Headquarters, US Continental Army Command (USCONARC).
The USCONARC Trainer Preparation Course conducted during the period 25 May to 26 June 1964 was supervised primarily by officers from USCONARC and scientists from Human Resources Research Office, and operated by permanent party personnel of the Third US Army NCO Academy.
A conference was held at Fort Jackson on 10 September 1964, attended by representatives of USCONARC, Third US Army, Fifth US Army, and Forts Dix, Knox, Ord, Leonard Wood, Polk and Jackson. The evaluated results of the Preparation Course were so encouraging that USCONARC set in motion the machinery to establish a Drill Sergeant Course at all of its major Basic Training Centers - Forts Dix, Knox, Ord, Leonard Wood, Polk and Jackson. Once the schools were established, successful completion of the course would become mandatory for future NCO instructors at all the Basic Combat Training Centers.
Object of the training was two-fold: first, to screen more thoroughly all prospective Drill Sergeants before assigning them to train Army enlistees and recruits; second, to make them professional in all phases of the training they would be required to conduct.
The Honor Graduate of each’ class would receive an Army saber in recognition of his outstanding achievement. Each graduate would receive a campaign hat, a “classic which for 20 years had been a collector’s item, seldom seen on an Army Post. The hat would give instant recognition to the Drill Sergeant.
A reorganization of troop training units, effective 15 January 1964, resulted in the following changes on the Installation:
- The five Training Regiments became four Training Brigades.
- One Basic Combat Training “Regimental Headquarters’ was eliminated and the remaining Basic Combat Training units were increased from four to five battalions each.
The Basic Combat Training battalions were expanded from four to five companies each.
One Advanced Individual Training battalion headquarters and one Advanced Individual Training-Basic Unit Training company were eliminated. The three remaining Advanced Individual Training battalions were expanded from four to five companies each.
Preservation of Order
In January 1964, the Traffic Point System was instituted to provide com menders with an impartial administrative device for evaluating the driving performance of personnel under their jurisdiction.
The Fort Jackson Bowling Center was opened on 17 January 1964. This 24-lane facility, financed with non-appropriated funds, cost approximately $371,000.
A new bayonet assault course was constructed in early 1964 for the 1st Training Brigade. Construction on Physical Combat Proficiency Testing Area 209 was completed in mid-April. Work was accomplished by troop labor.
Permanent Buildings - At Last!
In July 1964, construction began on permanent steel and concrete buildings to replace wooden barracks that had housed the Fort’s troops since the early nineteen-forties. Contracts were awarded for eight enlisted men’s barracks, two enlisted men’s mess halls, two battalion administration and supply buildings, two battalion headquarters and classroom buildings, motor park facilities, brigade headquarters, dispensary, post exchange, and high temperature hot water, chilled water, and gas distribution lines.
Plans called for construction of new permanent barracks for each of the four training brigades, with each training unit to be a complete functional facility. Also scheduled for construction were six 300-man chapels and two 600-man chapels, together with certain permanent-type family quarters.
On 17 July 1964, Mrs. John J. Riley, widow of Second District Congress man John J. Riley, turned the first spade of earth to signify the start of the new construction. In addition to the Commanding General, Major General Gines Perez, speakers included the late Senator Olin D. Johnston, Senator Strom Thurmond, and Congressman Albert Watson. Many local dignitaries, officers, and civilian personnel of Fort Jackson attended this festive and historic groundbreaking ceremony.
In 1967, “ Howie Village ” and “Pierce Terrace” housing areas were completed. These were comprised of 69 officer and 180 noncommissioned officer units, respectively Bids for an additional 180 family units were awarded in the Summer of 1967. The building program also called for a modern 435-bed Fort Hospital and a one-building Reception Station to be built some time in the future.
The exchange opened the new Sporting Goods, Hobby, and Tobacco Shops in the main store complex in March 1964. The Ladies-Children Clothing Store of this complex burned on 16 June 1964. Undaunted, they moved to the building now occupied by the Thrift Shop and continued “business as usual’ while repairs were being made. By December of the same year, all repairs were complete and the Ladies-Children Clothing Store was again operating in the main store complex.
Mechanization and New Programs Begin
Effective 1 April 1964, Supply operations (except for clothing, equipage and ammunitions) were converted to Mechanized Line Item Accounting. Due to the implementation of Line Item Accounting, integration into Financial Inventory Accounting and subsequently into General Fund Accounting, three work shifts were started on 1 July 1964.
The Field Communication Crewman Course was completely revised in June 1964, with major changes being the addition of Driver Training and Typing. Also, the Automotive Maintenance Helper Course was revised in June — it was renamed the Wheel Vehicle Mechanics Course and cut in length from eight to seven weeks.
On 18 May 1964, a USCONARC-revised Advanced Individual Training program was implemented, and a new REP Phase III training began on 6 July. This new program instituted the teaching of Counter Guerrilla Warfare for the first time at Fort Jackson .
A six-to-nine months’ pilot study as to the best usage and evaluation of the Panorex X-Ray machine for use on basic trainees was initiated on 12 September 1964.
In the Summer of 1964, the 1st Training Brigade conducted a USCONARC directed Eight Weeks Revised Basic Combat Training Program which eliminated the more complex subjects and spent more time on dismounted drill and physical training. This revision was considered to be a great improvement, and was later adopted by US Continental Army Command for all US Army Training Centers.
The O’Neal System of hand-to-hand combat training was implemented in Basic Combat Training on 23 November 1964. This method is based on the premise that the feet are man’s most dangerous weapon; therefore, kicks form the basis of attack and defense.
M-113 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) training started at Fort Jackson on 20 June 1966.
In November 1964, Fort Jackson conducted 14 experimental tests on 1,000 trainees who had completed basic combat training. The results of these tests were forwarded through US Continental Army Command to the US Army Personnel Research Office for use in revising the Army Classification Battery.
Other innovations were introduced in Basic Combat Training in November. The end-of--cycle proficiency test was revised for a more accurate gauge of just how much military knowledge and skills a trainee retains at the end of Basic Combat Training. In addition, new standards and goals were established for trainees.
Changes in Command
Major General Gines Perez assumed command of Fort Jackson 11 June 1964, vice Brigadier General Jefferson J. Irvin (7 May-10 June 1964). Major General Charles S. D’Orsa had been Commanding General during the period 18 December 1961 to 6 May 1964. Brigadier General Jefferson J. Irvin assumed duties as Deputy Commanding General on 24 February 1964, Vice Brigadier General Robert T. Ashworth (3 August 1962-23 February 1964).
Innovation by Training Aids Center - August 1964
The Training Aids Center made a significant contribution to training activities by developing the prototype of a new hand-to-hand combat dummy. Captain Harold L. Star was the principal initiator in the research and development of the new training device. The cover of the dummy was vinyl plastisol, while the filling was urethane foam (foam rubber). This new training device represented a substantial improvement over straw dummies in terms of desirability and cost savings due to the long life of the new dummy. The new hand-to-hand combat dummy was later adopted as a standardized device throughout the Continental United States Supply System in 1965.
First Little Theatre Group Organized
A Little Theatre Group was organized and presented its first play, “My Three Angels,” on 23 and 24 August 1964.
Dignitaries Visit Fort Jackson
The Secretary of the Army, Stephen Ailes, visited Fort Jackson on 23 October 1964. Mr. Ailes’ area of interest was a special training concept being tested by US Continental Army Command at Fort Jackson . General Harold K. Johnson, Army Chief of Staff, arrived at Fort Jackson on 1 November 1964 for a two-day visit to observe Exercise Air Assault II. General Johnson returned to Fort Jackson on 4 November, and was joined by Secretary of the Army Stephen Ailes.
Developments in Comptroller Section
On 1 November 1964, the Finance and Accounting Office began a Centralized Automated Pay System (CAMPS) test for military pay. Payrolls for officer and cadre enlisted personnel were converted from local electrical accounting machine processing to automatic data processing during November. Payrolls for November and December were prepared and computed by the Automatic Data Processing Military Pay Division, US Army Finance Center. The test operations were successful and the Finance Center Test Support Branch recommend that the conversion procedures used at Fort Jackson be utilized for future tests in other areas.
Two small scale computers (UNIVAC 1004) were installed during September 1963 and January 1964. These computers replaced several electrical accounting machines. Other IBM equipment was exchanged for more complex models, thereby increasing the capability of the division.
A tuition assistance contract was negotiated with the Richland Technical Education Center, Columbia, South Carolina, on 15 November 1964. The Center gives such courses as drafting, data processing, mechanical, electronics, and chemical subjects.
General Paul Freeman, Jr., new commander of the US Continental Army Command, completed a two-day tour of Fort Jackson on 23 April 1965.
SSG Jerry Kirkpatrick, a 3d Brigade Committee Instructor, points out a target to Privates George Tatus and Robert Imhoff of Company A, 13th Battalion, at the M-60 Machine Gun Range.
Army Build-up of 1965
The Army Build-up announced in July 1965 was an important factor influencing the activities of the US Army Training Center, Fort Jackson . Increased input to Fort Jackson began in late August, and by November the average training load was 20,711 compared with a normal capacity of approximately 15,000. This represented a 387 increase in workload. In order to support this in creased input, 10 provisional companies were organized in the period from 23 August to 25 October 1965. Other areas most affected by the Army build-up are covered later in detail.
The build-up of trainee strength generated a considerable increase in medical patients for both inpatient and outpatient care. In 1965 there were 31 meningococcal meningitis cases, with no fatalities. Nine reserve medical units received active duty training during the period 13 June-7 August 1965. These units consisted of five reserve hospitals, one medical dispensary, and three medical detachments for a total of 848 reserve personnel.
Reception Station military cadre and civilian employees said goodbye to the five-day work week as they prepared for continuous operation to absorb the steadily climbing input. The Reception Station operated on a six-day work week during the month of August, and for three weeks in September.
Company E, US Army Reception Station, was organized on 5 November 1965 to insure effective and timely processing of the heavy workload experienced during the build-up.
To provide housing for the increased Reception Station population, a Holding Company was established on 3 December 1965 with 164 tents. This gave the Reception Station a housing capacity for 2,900 men.
The increased training load, primarily in Basic Combat Training, caused many relocations and adjustments in the troop unit facilities. Basic Combat Training unit areas were realigned to accommodate a maximum of 280 trainees. One thousand, eight hundred men were housed in tents and were housed in the 3d Training Brigade area.
During the period 0ctober-Decemb 1965 the Fort Jackson personnel authorization was increased by 371 civilian spaces to support the Army Build up requirements.
General Harold K. Johnson, Army Chief of Staff, visited Fort Jackson on 2 December 1965 to see training activities related to the build-up of the Army.
Changes in Command
Brigadier General Jefferson I. Irvin, who had assumed duties as Deputy Commanding General on 24 February 1964, was transferred on 14 October 1965. During the remainder of 1965 no Deputy Commanding General was assigned.
Jackson Sergeants Get Marine Instruction
In order to gain some insight into the Marine Corps concept of Drill Instructor Training, Department of the Army secured 20 spaces for Army Sergeants to attend the Marine Drill Instructor School at Parris Island, South Carolina . Ten Army Sergeants attended Class 111-65 at Parris Island during the period 13 January-12 March 1965. Ten more attended Class IV-65, which graduated on
21 May 1965. All the Army graduates were assigned to the faculty of the various Army Drill Sergeant Schools.
The Committee Group, with an authorization of 34 officer and 112 enlisted spaces, was established on 1 September 1965. Training under the Committee Group and Drill Sergeant Concept began on 4 October 1965.
Prior to organization of the Committee Group, the Drill Sergeant taught all subjects to the trainees. The Committee Group assumed responsibility for teaching the following subjects: Rand Grenades, The Infiltration Course, Basic Rifle Marksmanship, Night Firing, Close Combat, Individual Tactics, and General Subjects. The Drill Sergeant now acts as an assistant instructor to the Committee Group instructors in the areas named. The Committee Group was organized to allow special instructors for each subject area, thereby improving the quality of instruction.
Since implementation the Committee Group has assumed additional missions based on local requirements. These missions include (1) Qualification Firing and CBR Training for Permanent Party Personnel, (2) limited First Aid Instruction to advanced trainees, (3) Carbine Qualification for Army Air Defense Command, (4) M16 Qualification for personnel on assignment to the Republic of Vietnam, (5) Range firing for Reserve, National Guard and ROTC units, and (6) support to the Third Army Drill Instructor Program.
Organization of New Units
A new Identification Card and Fingerprint Card Unit was established at the US Army Reception Station in January 1965. On 1 November a Coding Unit” was organized in the Classification Branch to establish a master record on magnetic tape for each enlisted man. This system makes information on the special qualifications of each person processed into the Army readily available, which means faster and more efficient operations world-wide.
The 14th Specialist Battalion was activated on 1 October 1965 consisting of Battalion Headquarters, Headquarters Detachment, and A, B, and C Companies. The primary mission of this Battalion was training soldiers to be proficient in the General Supply Field and Food Services Field as a primary Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) and, upon successful completion of the course, to recommend award of the MOS.
Drill Sergeants Needed
Due to the increased requirement for Drill Sergeants within the Third US Army area, the mission of the Third US Army NCO Academy to train Noncommissioned Officers, without regard to MOS, was temporarily suspended in June 1965.
During March 1966, the NCO Academy was directed by the Commanding General, Third US Army, to establish a Drill Sergeant Assistant Course (subsequently changed to Drill Corporal Course) utilizing the program of instruction established at Fort Dix, New Jersey, as a guide. The “pilot course” was conducted during the period 15 April-13 May 1966.
Further, the NCO Academy was directed (in addition to the Drill Sergeant and Drill Corporal Courses) to establish the Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course and re-establish the Senior Noncommissioned Officer Course in accordance with US Continental Army Command Regulation 350-51. The initial basic course was conducted during the period 29 July-9 September 1966.
Effective with Headquarters Third US Army General Order No. 247, 12 August 1965, a separate Table of Distribution for the Fort Jackson Dental Unit was established with 42 officer, 49 enlisted, and 25 civilian spaces. This was formerly the Dental Detachment.
Basic Unit Training
Until August 1965 one of the primary missions of the 3d Training Brigade had been the training of Reserve Enlisted Personnel (REP). These personnel, in addition to Advanced Individual Training, received a six-week program of instruction known as Basic Unit Training.
Basic Unit Training was conducted by the 13th and 14th Battalions of the 3d Training Brigade. These Battalions were each composed of five Companies and a Battalion Headquarters. In the Spring of 1965 the decision was made by Headquarters US Continental Army Command (USCONARC) that the Active Army should cease training beyond Advanced Individual Training in the combat arms. USCONARC established the policy that Unit Training could best be accomplished by the individual’s reserve unit upon his release from active duty.
Drill Sergeant Concept of Basic Combat Training
The 8th Battalion test of the Drill Sergeant concept of Basic Combat Training was declared a success and was adopted by all Basic Training Centers. This program received nation-wide attention, through articles in newspapers such as Army Times and the New York Herald Tribune during 1965.
Major General Gines Perez, Commanding General of Fort Jackson, stated that “the Drill Sergeant is a specially-trained noncommissioned officer and dedicated soldier determined to train young recruits in military fundamentals to save their lives where serving our country against a mortal enemy. His job is a hard one High moral and professional standards are required of him. He treats each trainee individually, always mindful of his ultimate goal and the dignity of the individual.”
On 4 October 1965, responsibilities for the conduct of training were realigned to permit complete implementation of the Drill Sergeant concept of conducting Basic Combat Training.
The new approach to recruit training provided for a closer association of instructors and trainees during Basic Combat Training. The Drill Sergeant from the Receiving Company comes to the Reception Station during the receptee’s day of arrival and accompanies him during his entire reception processing. The Drill Sergeant adds a personal touch by being teacher, adviser, administrator, and leader of his platoon during the first weeks of a trainee’s Army life. This concept is the result of the Army’s emphasis on training at the company and platoon level.
Reorganization at Fort Jackson
Fort Jackson was selected as the installation for implementation and evaluation of standardized Tables of Distribution for Army Training Centers conducting Basic Combat Training. This reorganization occurred on 4 October 1965, when committees organic to the 1st and 2d Training Brigades were with drawn, increasing the emphasis on company-taught subjects presented by the Drill Sergeant.
The 138th Military Police Company was reorganized on 26 July 1965 as directed by US Continental Army Command. Under this reorganization, guards for prisoners on work details were no longer provided and military policemen at Gates 1 and 2 were removed.
Provisional organization of the Installation Finance and Accounting Element as a Division of the Comptroller Office was made on 1 November 1965. This reorganization provided the Installation Comptroller with direct control over Finance and Accounting activities.
Consolidation of Reports and Activities in 1965
New procedural changes were instituted in several units for greater efficiency and better utilization of manpower.
At the US Army Reception Station, four receptee morning reports were consolidated into one report. Also the Permanent Party Enlisted Branch, Adjutant General Military Personnel Division, initiated and effected the consolidation of permanent party morning reports in the four Training Brigades.
Several management improvements were accomplished by consolidation of organizational elements and procedural changes to further consolidation of Non-Table of Organization and Equipment (TOE) Support Maintenance Shops and Maintenance Manhour Accounting.
Plans were initiated to consolidate Property Disposal activities of Fort Jackson and Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina, in April 1965. Shaw assumed full responsibility for Fort Jackson property disposal operations on 30 Nay 1966. This action was authorized by Memorandum of Agreement between Head quarters, Tactical Air Command and Headquarters, US Continental Army Command. This transfer resulted in no significant change in disposing of excess or salvageable installation property, since the Air Force retained an on-Post facility for the receipt of Army property.
Consolidated Supply Section Reorganized
The Table of Distribution published by Headquarters, Third US Army on 22 September changed the organizational structure of the Consolidated Supply Section. The Subsistence and Administrative and Management Divisions were eliminated. The Commissary Branch and the Ration Processing and Distribution Branches were reorganized as Divisions, while the Food Service Branch was placed directly under the Director of Supply. The Administrative and Management Division was redesignated a Branch, and an Executive Officer position was established.
New Programs of Instruction and Activities
Special orientation classes were provided Cuban Nationals in Spanish and English. The classes included instruction in Subversion and Espionage.
Complying with Third US Army Management Improvement Plan for Fiscal Year 1965, the Safety Section (in coordination with Civilian Personnel Section) conducted a course on accident prevention procedures for supervisors of Wage Board employees. Six classes were held, and 115 supervisors completed the course.
A Pilot Educational Television System, consisting of one playback facility and 10 television receivers, was initiated in 1965 to support Basic Combat Training. A preview transmission began on 19 September 1966 to the Staff, and actual transmission to the trainees began on 3 October 1966.
Significant among training accomplishments during 1965 was the Medical Self Help Training Program course. The course consisted of 11 subjects and was conducted in three separate sessions for four separate classes. A total of 385 personnel attended, and 363 completed the required written test.
In September 1965 the 3d Training Brigade implemented a US Continental Army Command program of orientation for personnel scheduled to be deployed to the Republic of Vietnam . Patrolling, tactics, ambushes, and jungle survival subjects were the principal subjects taught in the 16-hour block of instruction.
A plastics operation program was added to the Third US Army Training Aids Center in 1965. Installation of plastics reproduction facilities was completed and full-scale plastics reproduction of training aids began in 1966. It was anticipated that this program would be expanded extensively in the future.
Seventy-eight officers attended a 24-hour “School for Special Court Martial Counsel” during the period 29 March-November 1965. The purpose of the school was to increase the quality of representation given the Government and the accused in special courts-martial.
As of 18 November 1965, Headquarters US Continental Army Command required that all trainees receive a special proficiency test at the end of the fifth week of training. The test was designed to identify personnel in need of special training assistance.
Pugil Stick Training was the name given a new concept of bayonet training instituted in 1965. This new concept teaches the soldier to use bayonets with confidence and aggressiveness, and makes child’s play of the old teaching method. Instead of poking a sawdust-filled sack the trainee faces an opponent who can think, move, be evasive, fight back. Most important, it emphasizes the requirement for the trainee to properly execute all bayonet fighting movements. The Pugil Stick is approximately the length and weight of the M14 Rifle with bayonet attached. The trainee is protected by a football helmet with face mask, lacrosse gloves, and groin protector. The Pugil Stick Training Area was completed in January 1965. Total cost, including troop labor, was $16,273.
Pre-Officer Candidate School Training
The mission of preparing applicants for the Officer Candidate School (OCS) at Fort Benning, Georgia, was assigned to the 3d Training Brigade in December. Pre-OCS training is intended to motivate the applicants, promote mental growth, and develop them physically. Special features of this training include additional study, classroom and training exercises, and rotation to the various leadership positions in each company.
On 24 July 1965 the Department of Housing and Home Finance entered into a $69,549 contract with the Baker Construction Company for an addition to the Fort Jackson Elementary School . Construction provided three classrooms, a music room, toilets and hallways with a 4,800 square foot limitation. Approximately 757 of range and training area communications were rehabilitated in 1965 by replacing open wire lines with telephone cable, and field telephones were replaced by dial instruments.
In preparation for implementation of Norm Pay Procedures phase of the Centralized Automated Pay System Test, the Financial Data Records folders for officer and cadre enlisted personnel (less US Army Hospital personnel) were transferred to the Finance and Accounting Office in August and September, respectively. Finance and Accounting Office assumed military pay functions previously performed by Unit Personnel Officers. Space was made for approximately 50 additional personnel and equipment.
In February 1965, the Data Conversion (Key Punch) Branch was relocated in the Finance and Accounting Office. As a result, work scheduling improved, providing a smoother “input and output flow” in Data Processing Division because the data conversion responsibility was placed as close to the source of data as possible.
Self Service Supply Center
A directive from higher headquarters of 25 May 1965 required the Self Service Supply Center to stock only office supplies, common hardware, house keeping and cleaning and preserving supplies which were capitalized under Army Stock Fund on 1 July 1965.
A Distinct Honor
Fort Jackson received the fourth award of the Minuteman Flag in 1965 for outstanding Savings Bond Participation, achieving the best record of all Class I installations in the Department of the Army.
Value of Fort Recognized
The State Newspaper of 21 May 1965, in an editorial “Serving the Nation,” stated, “Fort Jackson’s well proved value to the nation is now being well-recognized in Washington and under the prodding of Rep. L. Nendel Rivers, the government, including the Congress, will likely continue to rate this facility highly.”
Changes in Command
Brigadier General Corley served as the Deputy Commanding General from 16 January-4 May 1966. On 1 October Brigadier General Elvy B. Roberts became the Deputy Commanding General.
Organization of New Unit
Fort Jackson General Order 25, 15 May 1966, discontinued nine provisional companies (Company F, 1st through 9th Battalions) and organized 10 companies (Company F, 1st through 10th Battalions), 1st and 2d Training Brigades. Mission : to receive, equip, quarter, provide mess and administration for, and train basic trainees.
On 12 August, Company E and Company F (15th Battalion) and Company D (17th Battalion), 4th Training Brigade, were organized. Their mission: to command and train increased input of personnel under Combat Support Military Occupational Specialty (MOS).
A Special Training Company was organized and became operational in the 2d Training Brigade on 18 January 1966. This Company, designed to provide special training for those who were unable to assimilate instruction in a regular cycle or had physical, emotional or motivational shortcomings, proved to be a valuable tool for basic unit commanders. Previously a Drill Sergeant tended to spend approximately 3O7 of his time with less than 1O7 of the trainees. Now the more difficult students are sent to this unit, designed to provide the extra help they require.
Changes Made at Fort Jackson
The 291st Army Band was transferred to Fort Benning, Georgia, 13 December 1966. At the same time, the 282d Band was reorganized with an authorization of one Warrant Officer and 42 enlisted spaces.
The Army Community Service Center began operating within the Assistant Chief of Staff, G1, area in March and became a separate activity in July 1966. In the Fort Jackson area of responsibility, approximately 101,000 people are eligible for service by this activity. Services provided include financial assistance, housing availability, transportation, relocation, medical and dental care, legal assistance, orientation of new arrivals, and related matters. Help is offered to dependents whose sponsors are absent, depart suddenly on unaccompanied change of station, or are otherwise unable to assist with the variety of problems facing a dependent under emergency conditions.
Noncommissioned Officer Academy
During March 1966 the NCO Academy was directed to establish an Assistant Drill Instructor Course in anticipation of the expected shortage of Drill Sergeants used in Basic Combat Training. This course utilized a program of instruction established at Fort Dix, New Jersey, as a guide. Selected Infantry Advanced Individual Training graduates attend the five-week school, designed to give students the capability and knowledge to conduct squad drill and teach Army Drill No. 1. Graduates of the course are appointed Acting Corporal, then serve as supervisors, assistant instructors and demonstrators in Basic Combat Training platoons.
The NCO Academy was also directed to establish a Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course and re-establish the Senior Noncommissioned Officer Course in accordance with US Continental Army Command Regulation 350-51.
For training purposes, construction of a Vietnamese-type village named BAU BANG was initiated in March and completed in September 1966, utilizing 3d Brigade personnel during off-duty time and resources within the Brigade. The fortified hamlet with a 400 meter perimeter was built under the supervision of Sergeant First Class Woodrow Weaver, a former military advisor in Vietnam who actually lived in a hamlet named Bau Bang. The village, a composite of living conditions and types of construction typically found in a Vietnamese village or hamlet, was intended to give Advanced Individual Training students, and permanent party personnel who were programmed specifically for Vietnam, a forecast of what they might expect. This is a notable example of Fort Jack son’s initiative and thoroughness in training, and has become a feature of paramount interest to guests of the installation.
Bau Bang village building.
In front of the hamlet is a moat with punji stakes and in the rear is a barricade wall of pointed logs placed closely together in an upright position, while at the entrance and in each corner there is a guard tower. Inside the berm, a tunnel connects the entrance tower with a “spider hole” and an under ground bunker from which a soldier can fire but cannot be seen. Within the hamlet itself a fire arrow is employed to direct air support against night assaults.
The dwellings represent the various types found throughout Vietnam . In the highlands, the Montagnards live in huts built on “stilts” and others with grass or tin roofs. The yellow and red flag in front of the Headquarters building is a reproduction of the flag of South Vietnam.
In each hamlet, at least one haystack and one well are evident, and in many cases the Viet Cong will conceal a tunnel entrance in either or both. In Bau Bang, the haystack covers an entrance to a tunnel complex which is one meter square and approximately 75 meters in total length. The tunnel actually divides and becomes two; one tunnel leads to an exit approximately 50 meters outside the stockade wall and the other leads to an exit hidden beneath a bunk inside the grass hut immediately to the left of the haystack. A false tunnel entrance can be found in the hamlet shrine and beyond the rear gate, .a trail leads to a wash area located beside a small stream. Live chickens within the village complete the scene.
A section of the hamlet has been utilized to familiarize trainees and visiting personnel with the various types of booby traps employed by the Viet Cong. In this area you will find a false bottom fox hole with punji stakes, the “horizontal whip,” boards with sharpened spikes designed to penetrate the sides of a boot or leg, a 200-pound mace designed to eliminate up to a squad of men, a “Daisy Chain’ -of grenades, a deadly cross bow or homemade sawed off shotgun, man traps and traps which fire a round through a man’s foot when stepped on.
Reports received from those in Vietnam who completed their training here state that the lessons learned at this hamlet have helped them immeasurably. It is hoped that through this historical information on Bau Bang, the reader may better appreciate some of the rigors of training necessary for our fighting men facing the dangers of battle overseas.
Zero Defects, a new dimension in quality, exploded over Fort Jackson on 25 April 1966, a common kick-off day on which other installations of Third US Army launched coordinated attacks on a broad front Objective: The reduction and elimination of error, and all its causes, by individuals all along the line. Battle Cry: Prevention - not detection; Right the first time - every time
The Zero Defects debut at Fort Jackson was carefully planned to attract the interest and excite the imagination of commanders, managers, and super visors alike. Indoctrination of management was augmented by a teaser campaign and promotion which, in turn, were climaxed by colorful kick-off ceremonies at Patton Stadium. Hundreds of Fort Jackson personnel joined the Commanding General, Major General Gines Perez, and his guests - distinguished business, military, and government leaders from across the Palmetto State - to observe the ceremonies. Mr. Miles Hardenburgh, US Army Missile Command, Huntsville, Alabama, delivered the keynote address.
Mr. Charles Crawford, Comptroller Section, served as Administrator from 25 April to 25 July 1966 and was succeeded by Mr. Bynum G Johnston.
For purposes of perspective it is important to note that the unique approach of the Zero Defects Program - a personalized approach to every individual and his work, from the laundress to the Commanding General - calls for the highest order of commitment and involvement by everyone who has a hand in mission accomplishment. Major General Perez articulated both the feeling and natural appeal of Zero Defects when he said: “Zero Defects is designed to reverse the trend toward diminishing the status of the individual. It offers him the means to set his own goals - voluntarily. It assists him in reaching these goals, and it recognizes him when he does so.”
On 21 April 1967, Fort Jackson observed the First Anniversary of the Zero Defects Program. The Commanding General sustained its challenge and reaffirmed its principles before his staff, soldiers, and employees assembled at the flagpole. General Perez was presented a Zero Defects flag of original design, one made by his own people. The flag depicts all elements of the mission force, military and civilian, and symbolizes a unified effort by that force in a common purpose: the defense and freedom of the United States of America .
Utilization of the new Rifle Squad Tactical Training Range Complex began on 25 April 1966 in the 3d Training Brigade. This complex, known as TRAINFIRE II, is made up of four separate ranges which were constructed for practical work by soldiers employing the M-l4 rifle. The ranges are used for both live and blank firing exercises as part of Rifle Squad Tactical Training for those personnel undergoing Advanced Infantry Training.
On 20 June 1966, training with the Armored Personnel Carrier Mll3 was implemented. All personnel undergoing Advanced Individual Training received an orientation and demonstration of the capabilities of this vehicle, including navigation, followed by six hours of practical application and use of the vehicle in Rifle Squad Tactical Training.
AlT Program Revised
A major expansion and revision of the Advanced Individual Training (AlT) Program occurred in October. Fort Jackson General Order No. 104 organized Company E, 12th Battalion, 3d Training Brigade, in order that advanced individual training could be expanded from eight to nine weeks to provide Republic of Vietnam-oriented training. Also, the X rifle replaced the M-l4 as the primary weapon of the Infantryman, and a new training technique (the Quick Kill Course, utilizing Daisy air rifles, the M-l4 and SM-l6 rifles) was employed.
Two new courses were introduced in the revised AlT Program. The Instinctive Reaction Course is designed to teach the troops the principle of firing weapons, with split second notice, at a target at close range. A “Crack and Thump” course has been added to train men to better locate the position of their aggressor. In addition, three helicopter mockups were put into use to assist instruction on how to secure a landing zone and resupply by helicopter.
Improved training management was introduced in the 1st Training Brigade. One example is the “county fair” type review, in which company cadre station themselves at selected locations within the company area. The trainee then moves from station to station answering questions and demonstrating actions learned in various Basic Combat Training subjects.
In conjunction with the “county fair” type review of instruction, within their respective areas companies constructed grenade pits, low-crawl lanes, bayonet dummies, horizontal ladders, mini-ITT courses (barbed wire entanglements, foxholes, log barriers, etc.), and other specialized training aids. The presence of these training aids in company areas provided facilities to demonstrate immediately the type of training the commander desired to review.
On-The-Job Training for Military Policemen
For the first time in the 25-year history of the Military Police Corps at Fort Jackson, a group of Advanced Individual Trainees received formal on- the-job training to qualify them as Military Policemen. In the past, men had trained here to receive a Military Occupational Specialty, but this was the first time instruction had been set up specifically for men en masse who had just graduated from Basic. The new on-the-job training began 3 October 1966.
Unique in the new program is the idea that students will become oriented to Military Police work much quicker than a graduate of a regular Military Police training school. At Fort Gordon, the Military Police School stresses theory, but at Fort Jackson the training combines actual experience and theory.
Improvements at Reception Station
In March 1966, receptees started drawing their military clothing on the day of their arrival. This contributed immeasurably to the morale and comfort of the newly arrived receptee.
The Reception Station instituted in November, as part of the in-processing, a Drill Sergeant orientation which included a Drill Sergeant movie, TV 662. The film showed much of the basic training cycle and helped ease the anxiety and questions of these new soldiers.
A complete one-step clothing issue to receptees began in November. Under the new procedure all alterations were completed, name tapes sewn on, and clothing returned to the individual before he left the clothing issue facility. This new procedure was the result of a Zero Defects Program idea submitted by Second Lieutenant Charles F Hanselmann, QMC. Lieutenant Hanselmann received a “Bronze Zero Defects Award” for his innovation.
Construction Projects at Fort Jackson
The contract for a new 1,000-seat theater at Fort Jackson was awarded to the Parke Construction Company, Charlotte, North Carolina, on 15 February 1966 and work was started on 25 February. The theater was opened on 17 May 1967.
A direct teletype line to the US Weather Bureau, Columbia, South Carolina, was installed in the Assistant Chief of Staff, G2 Section in April 1966, pro viding ready access to comprehensive weather information.
Construction work on a direct in and out telephone dialing system was completed by the end of June. This service, known as Centrex, permitted callers to dial the Installation directly, rather than through a Post operator.
Fort Jackson took a big step in the long temporary-to-permanent building process in June 1966. At that time the 3d Training Brigade became the first unit to occupy the new brick permanent buildings on Post. These units consisted of one chapel, one Brigade Headquarters, two Battalion Headquarters, two Consolidated Messes, one gymnasium, eight barracks, two orderly/supply room complexes, one dispensary, one Post Exchange, and a motor pool. This complex, housed in the first permanent brick buildings erected on the 49- year old Post, marked the beginning of the Post’s transition from wood buildings to brick.
The new chapel was opened for use on 4 June 1966. A special dedication program was held on 31 July with Chaplain James B. Murphy, Third US Army Chaplain, as guest speaker.
The Post Exchange activated to serve the 3d Training Brigade included a retail store, snack bar, barber shop, laundry/dry cleaning facilities, and a news and amusement center providing a full range of greeting cards, phonograph records, magazines, amusement machines, and food vending machines for the trainees.
The morale and efficiency of the men occupying the new quarters increased markedly, since the time required for maintaining these buildings was much less than that required for the old quarters.
In May 1966 Fort Jackson was selected to conduct a test program, School Option Basic, to enlist Army of the United States personnel into the Regular Army while undergoing Basic Combat Training. Inductees were given the opportunity to enlist during Reception Station processing and to choose a school to attend while in the fourth week of basic training. Forty-three enlisted before termination of the program on 11 June 1966.
Changes in Comptroller Section
Third US Army standardized systems were implemented for test and evaluation on 1 March 1966. Systems implemented using UNIVAC 1005-2K were: Appropriation and fund accounting, cost accounting, financial inventory accounting, stock fund accounting, and liquidation of undelivered orders.
On 7 March 1966, operational control of Trainee Pay was assumed by the Finance and Accounting Division. One civilian and 26 enlisted spaces were transferred from the Adjutant General Section to staff this unit.
The Norm Net Pay phase of the Centralized Automated Military Pay System (CAMPS) was implemented on 1 April 1966. To alleviate crowded conditions brought about by the Build-up Program and duties added to implement the Modified Military Pay Voucher System, 6,600 square feet of additional office space were made available to the Finance and Accounting Division in 1966.
The Finance and Accounting Division accepted responsibility for administration of the Savings Program, including Soldiers Deposits, in July 1966. On 1 August, the Third US Army Standard Line item Accounting System was implemented for test and evaluation before extension to other Class I installations.
The Accounting Surveillance Program, following directions by higher head quarters, was begun in October 1966 to provide guidance for determining the validity of recorded and reported data concerning available financial and material resources. This new program, which did not formally go into effect until 13 February 1967, represented an enlargement — in scope and emphasis — of existing surveillance programs.
Its purpose was to provide management assistance in performance of operating mission; to assure the safeguarding of assets, and the accuracy and reliability of records and reports; to promote operational efficiency; and to assure adherence to prescribed managerial regulations and directives.
To accomplish the above objectives, a Surveillance Team, monitored by the Comptroller and Assistant Chief of Staff, G4, was established to conduct periodic accounting surveillance visits to the various Post activities. “Specialists” were added to the team as appropriate. For example, if the activity under surveillance had a large personnel function, a member from Civilian or Military Personnel would be temporarily added to the team. Another activity might not require a personnel specialist on the team, but could have extensive supply functions. This would, of course, require someone with a strong background in supply operations.
US Army Appreciates Good Soldiers’ Town
A ceremony to award the US Army Certificate of Appreciation for Patriotic Civilian Service to the City of Columbia was held at Fort Jackson Officers’ Open Mess 26 July 1966. Lieutenant General Louis W. Truman, Commanding General, Third US Army, presented the award to Mayor Lester L. Bates. The City of Columbia was cited for an “outstanding demonstration of concern for the welfare and morale of the American soldier.”
In the Spotlight
On 28 December 1966 Captain Howard B. Levy was advised by the Commanding Officer, United States Army Hospital, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, that charges had been filed against him for willful disobedience of a lawful order to train Special Forces Aidmen, and for making public statements designed to promote disloyalty and disaffection among the Armed Forces. When all charges had been assembled there were a total of five. Charge one was the willful disobedience of the order under the provisions of Article 90 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). Charge two, drawn under Article 134, alleged that Captain Levy had made statements that were designed to promote disloyalty and disaffection among the troops. Additional Charge One stemmed from the same statements and alleged violation of Article 133 of the Code. Additional Charges Two and Three alleged violation of Articles 133 and 134 and were based on a letter attacking United States foreign policy in Vietnam and forwarded through a friend to a noncommissioned officer then stationed in Vietnam .
The General Court Martial began on 10 May 1967 and a final verdict was not reached until the night of Friday, 2 June 1967. The findings were “guilty of all five charges” with lesser included offenses cited in Additional Charges Two and Three. Due to the inapplicability of the legal wording of the lesser included offenses, Additional Charges Two and Three were dismissed the following morning. This reduced the possible maximum confinement from 11 years to eight years. At 1140 on the morning of Saturday, 3 June 1967, Captain Howard Brett Levy was sentenced to “be dismissed from the service, to forfeit all pay and allowances and to be confined at hard labor for three years.”
The court martial received extensive national and some international news coverage. The civil rights aspect of the trial and the appearance of the Southern Regional Director of the American Civil Liberties Union as the civilian defense counsel attracted the more active civil rights press. Consideration of a war crimes defense based on the Nuremberg Trials brought in news media from as far away as London, England . A further defense citing medical ethics increased the national and international public interest.
At final count some 38 news organizations were represented. Included were the two major wire services, the three major television networks, several national and local newspapers, two foreign newspapers, local radio and television broadcasters, and a number of periodicals. Among these were several very outspoken civil rights publications.
In order to effectively control the influx of reporters and newsmen it was necessary for the Fort Jackson Information Office to establish a special Press Center near the site of the trial and to reserve sufficient seats in the courtroom to accommodate the press. An officer from the Information Office was assigned as a full time liaison officer in the courtroom. These arrangements enabled the press to have working room, sufficient telephones and access to an officer whose only duty was to assist the press in any area of difficulty.
The subsequent denial of both the war crimes and medical ethics defenses dispelled much of the notoriety surrounding the court martial. When Captain Levy was escorted into confinement on the day of sentencing, most of the militant civil rights press and all of the foreign press had departed.
Throughout its history, Fort Jackson ’s fluctuations from expansion to near extinction have been mirrored by the activities of its training facilities. From the days of the Great War when the old camp was built through the more recent times of the US Army Training Center, dedicated personnel-- both military and civilian--have performed their duties with outstanding proficiency and selflessness.
What Fort Jackson lacked in size, it has made up in many other ways. One of them was being located “beneath so kind a sky” that training continued virtually every day of the year. In this kind of climate and on this kind of terrain, Fort Jackson has had more man-training days annually than possibly any other military installation in the nation. The sandy loam absorbed even hard rain and there was none of the red mud that plagued and interrupted the programs of most training camps. America ’s Armed Forces could ill afford to lose or abandon the Post.
The Fort has been a showplace for foreign military and political observers through the years. Former President Franklin D. Roosevelt, on one of his visits, revealed in a press conference that he had more intimate knowledge of the Fort and its history than even the best military authorities.
Senator Dirksen’s Visit
Senator Everett M. Dirksen (R-Illinois) visited Fort Jackson on 14 July 1967 for a ceremony and a brief tour of the Post.
He was met and greeted by the Commanding General of Fort Jackson, Major General Gines Perez, in front of Post Headquarters, attended an honor guard ceremony, spoke briefly, and was then taken on a whirlwind tour of the Post. Senator Dirksen, the US Senate Minority Leader, was stationed briefly at “ Camp Jackson ” in 1917 as a sergeant.
With Senator Dirksen were Senator Strom Thurmond, Columbia Mayor Lester Bates, Congressman Albert Watson, Robert Stevens, former Secretary of the Army under President Eisenhower (1950-1952), and other distinguished visitors.
After the tour the Senator returned to Columbia for a press conference and a fund raising dinner that evening.
Drill Sergeant School Established
Third U.S. Army Noncommissioned Officer Academy . Name was later changed to Drill Sergeant School . Picture taken 23 October 1964.
The mission of the school was to prepare selected enlisted personnel to conduct Basic Training. The six-week Drill Sergeant Course was designed to make each prospective Drill Sergeant an expert in Basic Combat Training. Emphasis was placed on the noncommissioned officer’s three fundamental roles:
Leader, Instructor, Supervisor. Two other courses of instruction conducted by the Drill Sergeant School were a four-week Drill Corporal Course and a one-week Officer Orientation Course. The responsibility for the Third United States Army Noncommissioned Officer Academy mission was transferred to Fort McClellan, Alabama . The School had conducted the Expert Infantryman Badge Test twice each year since 1964 for Fort Jackson personnel.
Classes conducted since the activation of the school on 9 January 1959 through 14 July 1967 have been as follows:
- Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course: 2
- Senior Noncommissioned Officer Course: 36
- Drill Sergeant Course: 40
- Drill Corporal Course: 7
- Officer Orientation Course: 9
Largest Reception Station in the US Army
The following 1967 VIP briefing, given by the Commanding Officer of the Reception Station, presented a clear picture of that important segment of Fort Jackson operations:
“The mission of the Reception Station is to receive and administratively process, within a prescribed time limit of four days, all United States Regular Army, Army Reserve, National Guard, or prior service personnel ordered to active duty, and present the best possible impression of the Army to each new accession. This mission is unique in that the Fort Jackson Reception Station is the only one in the United States Army required on a regular basis to process personnel for two Army Training Centers ; i.e., Fort Gordon, Georgia and Fort Jackson, South Carolina . In addition, we are also charged with orienting and processing qualified applications for Officer Candidate School from In ducted and Regular Army (RA) Personnel being processed at the Reception Station, as well as counseling qualified inducted personnel on the benefits of enlisting in the regular army for a school of their choice of sixteen weeks duration or longer.
“To accomplish this mission, the Reception Station is organized with a total authorized strength of 392 personnel, of which 130 are civilians. This staffing permits maximum finished processing of 500 men per day, five days a week. Two sections remain fully operational 24 hours a day, seven days a week; they are the Consolidated Mess and the Initial Receiving Point (IRP).
“The majority of receptees arrive by bus or train. Some arrive by air and are shuttled to Fort Jackson by Army bus; all accessions are received at the initial receiving point. They are welcomed into the Army and fed, if they arrive during meal time or missed their last meal. They are given a haircut which marks their initial transition as a soldier. After two hours of in-processing, they are then assigned to their company for issue of bed ding and comfort pak.
“Within 24 hours after arriving, each receptee receives his initial issue of clothing. They next attend the Company Commander Orientation and this ends the processing for the first day.
“On the morning of their second processing day, all receptees undergo a physical inspection. Approximately 55 out of 10,000 persons are eliminated each month as a result of this inspection. After the inspection, they receive their initial battery of Army tests, which takes six hours to complete. Four hours are given on this day, with remaining tests given the following day.
“On the individual’s third day, he is interviewed. It is through this interview that the man’s aptitudes and abilities are determined. The Classification/Assignment Noncommissioned Officer utilizes this information to make a recommendation as to the Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) in which he will be trained upon completion of Basic Combat Training. Qualified high school and college graduate inducted personnel are identified at this time. They are interviewed by career counselors for the Officer Candidate School Program, and Army School Program which fills special requirements and hard skill MOS schools with Regular Army personnel. Our program at Fort Jackson has resulted in more than three thousand individuals volunteering for an extra year to obtain a school of their choice and more than seven hundred for Officer Candidate School .
“After classification and assignment, each receptee is interviewed by the personal affairs branch; here, his allotments are made, pay vouchers checked, insurance application and family medical care applications are completed, and his records verified for accuracy and completeness.
“On the fourth and final processing day, each man is paid; sworn into the Regular Army, if he entered as a US Inductee and elected a school, given his immunization, and prepared for shipment.
“Personnel assigned to Fort Gordon depart by commercial carrier at 1330 hours and those assigned to Fort Jackson are picked up by their Basic Combat Training unit. Personnel destined for other installations are normally held overnight at the Reception Station and shipped early the next morning.”
Several major organizational changes occurred in 1967 which affected the personnel processing mission of the installation. On 1 April 1967, the United States Army Oversea Replacement Station became operational and was attached to the Reception Station--the major processing unit at that time. On 1 June 1967, the US Army Personnel Center became operational, with the Reception Station and the Oversea Replacement Station as major units thereof.
In Fiscal Year 1967, Fort Jackson processed over 103,000 receptees through the Reception Station.
An Outstanding Suggestion
A five-line idea submitted by Mrs. Lillian H. Rabon — a civilian employee in the Clothing and Textile Division — as part of the Army Suggestion Plan resulted in one of the largest cash awards for a suggestion ever presented at Fort Jackson.
Mrs. Rabon received a check for $900 from Major General Gines Perez, Commanding General, Thursday morning, 17 August 1967, in a ceremony at her workshop.
While working as a cutter for Army greens (summer and winter dress uniforms) at the Initial Clothing Issue Point, Mrs. Rabon suggested an improvement in the operation to eliminate stitching to prevent raveling on trouser legs because at the alteration center, the legs have to be cut anyway to the soldier’s correct length.
The suggestion was adopted on 25 January 1967 by representatives of the Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps. Mrs. Rabon was instrumental in changing the look of 4.2 million pairs of trousers annually for a savings of $50,000 for the government.
Armed Forces Day - 50th Anniversary Celebration
Over 40,000 people attended the Armed Forces Day activities at Fort Jackson on Saturday, 20 May 1967--the highest attendance figure on record.
Also celebrated at that time, with a Historical Exhibit, was the 50th Anniversary of the beginning of Fort Jackson as a military installation.
Armed Forces Day highlighted the training given soldiers, and the capabilities of the military. A Green Beret team from Fort Bragg, North Carolina, a sentry dog team from Fort Benning, Georgia, a flyover by four F-lO2 Delta Daggers from the South Carolina Air National Guard, and weapons demonstrations all were available for public viewing.
Important Training Activities in 1967
Fort Jackson covered an area of 52,594 acres extending 18 miles East to West and 10 miles North to South in 1967.
The Post and Training Center Headquarters were one and the same. The 1st and 2d Training Brigades conducted Basic Combat Training. The Committee Group provided certain Basic Combat Training instruction to the 1st and 2d Training Brigades; the 3d Training Brigade conducted Vietnam-oriented Advanced Individual Infantry Training; and the 4th Training Brigade conducted Combat Support Training.
Upon completion of a four-day processing period, in the Reception Station, trainees were assigned to Fort Gordon or one of the Basic Combat Training Brigades, either the 1st or 2d Training Brigade, at Fort Jackson .
Approximately 22% of the trainees that completed Basic Combat Training remained at Fort Jackson for additional training, 6% for nine weeks of Vietnam-oriented Advanced Individual Infantry Training conducted by the 3d Training Brigade, and 16% for Combat Support Training conducted by the 4th Training Brigade. The remaining 78% of the trainees completing Basic Combat Training proceeded to advanced training at schools or with units located else where throughout the continental United States.
The 1st and 2d Training Brigades were responsible for the conduct of 215 hours of company-taught subjects. These subjects included: (1) Drill and Ceremonies, (2) Marches and Bivouacs, (3) Pugil Stick, (4) Bayonet, (5) Hand- to-Hand Combat, and (6) Mechanical Training with the M14 Rifle.
The Committee Group was responsible for the conduct of 117 hours of instruction in Basic Combat Training subjects. The Committee Group taught two general subjects: (1) Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Training and
(2) First Aid. Additionally, the Committee Group conducted training in such Combat Indoctrination subjects as: (1) Infiltration Course; (2) Hand Grenades;
(3) Night Firing and Vision; and (4) Individual Tactical Training, which included negotiating barbed wire obstacles, individual field emplacements, and individual camouflage. Finally, the Committee Group conducted training in Basic Rifle Marksmanship to include marksmanship fundamentals on the 25 Meter Firing Ranges, Field Target Detection, Field Firing Exercises, and Record or Qualification Firing.
The 3d Training Brigade conducted Vietnam-oriented Advanced Individual Training instruction in light and heavy infantry weapons, to include the following: (1) Radio Communications Training (11B-10 Hours; 11C&H-l2 Hours); (2) Land Navigation (18 Hours); (3) Survival, Escape, and Evasion (9 Hours); (4) Squad Tactical Training (56 Hours); (5) M16 Rifle (11B-28 Hours; llC&H 4 Hours); (6) M79 Grenade Launcher and XM148 System, which is a combination of the M79 and Ml6 Rifle (4 Hours); (7) M60 Machine Gun (40 Hours); (8) M72 and 3.5-inch Rocket Launcher (6 Hours); (9) 81 MM Mortar (74 Hours); (10) 4.2 Inch Mortar (26 Hours); (11) 90MM Recoilless Rifle (16 Hours); and (12) 106MM Recoilless Rifle (48 Hours).
The 4th Training Brigade conducted Combat Support Training in nine military occupational specialties. Courses of instruction were between four and 10 weeks duration. These courses were: (1) General Supply (6 weeks) (76Al); (2) Clerk Typists (4 weeks) (7lB20); (3) General Clerk (4 weeks) (7lAl); (4) Radio Operator (10 weeks) (O5B2); (5) Wireman (8 weeks) (36Al); (6) Wheel vehicle Mechanic (8 weeks) (63B2); (7) Light Vehicle Driver (5 weeks) (64Al); 8) Personnel Specialist (4 weeks) (111120); and (9) Cooks School (8 weeks) (94B2).
In summary, Fort Jackson had three distinct training programs in progress in 1967: (1) Basic Combat Training for all Non-Prior Service Personnel (8 weeks); (2) RVN-Oriented Advanced Individual Infantry Training (9 weeks); (3) Combat Support Training (4-10 weeks). In addition to these programs, on-the- job training was conducted.
The total population in support of assigned missions was approximately 29,000, of which 19,000 were trainees; 6,300 permanent party, and 3,000 were civilian employees.
A New Voice
Innovation came to Fort Jackson in a new area in early 1967 when Lieutenant Richard Martucci and Master Sergeant Elvis Oswald took over the testing program for hand-to-hand combat. Previously, one of the critical points of the test was insuring that the commands given were uniform, thus making the test uniform for all trainees. By using a tape recorder to give the commands, with reaction time the same for each trainee, much greater efficiency in the testing program was achieved. Nicknamed “The Voice” by basic trainees, the small tape recorder controlled all movements of the trainees as they went through their eighth-week testing in hand-to-hand combat.
Training Aids Center
During 1967 the Active Army, National Guard, Army Reserve, and Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) units of South Carolina were again supported by the Training Aids Center, a facility that had become increasingly sophisticated in the products it produced and the techniques it employed.
The Training Aids Center was assigned a twofold mission: (1) to furnish all units supported with commercially manufactured devices and commercially produced General Training Aids, and (2) to meet the requirements of all Army elements by producing graphics and devices to meet individual needs. In this respect, Department of the Army continued to commercially produce thousands of graphic training aids and devices; however, detailed technical instruction on many subjects required thousands of graphics and devices made to meet individual needs. The Training Aids Center met this challenge.
Personnel training in UH1D and CH47 helicopters mockups fabricated by the Third U.S. Army Training Aids Center — 1967.
Most graphic training aids and devices standardized throughout the Army Supply System were developed by training aids centers. Prototypes produced for local use were found to have Army-wide application and were recommended for standardization throughout the Army System.
In fabricating graphics and devices, mass production methods were employed. The Plastics Branch had developed the capability of producing a variety of authentic replicas of training items such as model mines, grenades, fuses, shells, and many other devices that required a knowledge of techniques and methods employed by the Plastics Industry.
The Devices Branch fabricated mock-ups, models, and other special items such as an electronic Morse Code Trainer with control panel, and the Pugil Stick for use in hand-to-hand combat. The pugil stick was developed for a trainee to use as a rifle would be used to engage an opponent in actual hand- to-hand combat.
The Graphics Branch and the Brush and Spray Paint Unit likewise employed modern techniques such as copy cameras and the silk screen process for making charts.
The Training Aids Center also maintained a Display and Exhibit Room to familiarize all incoming noncommissioned officers and officers with the capability of the Center to support them with training aids.
Health of the Command
The health of the Command improved progressively during 1967. A major factor in the improvement was the initiation on 22 November 1966 of the Adenovirus Vaccine Program for Basic Trainees, where all trainees received immunization within four hours of arrival at the US Army Reception Station. This program was so effective that there was a tremendous 577 decrease in Upper Respiratory Infection cases. One company in the basic training cycle during January and February 1967 did not receive the vaccine. The hospitalized cases produced by this company alone were about the same as the total cases produced by the remaining companies in the battalion who had the vaccine. Also, there were only six meningitis cases with no deaths during 1 July 1966-30 June 1967, compared to 22 cases and two deaths for the same period in the prior year.
Mental Hygiene Consultation Division (MHCD)
This consultation service of the US Army Hospital since May 1965 had been primarily concerned with helping trainees make a healthy adjustment to military life. This was accomplished by going to the actual problem environment and working directly with the person needing help. This concept of doing psychiatric work in the field evolved from the Army’s experience in World War II and the Korean Conflict. To reduce the waste of manpower resulting from discharge of men for psychiatric reasons, the Army gradually evolved the idea of decentralized psychiatric care of field services. Personal contact with companies eliminated many of the misconceptions about psychiatric disease and established rapport between the Mental Hygiene Consultation Division and unit personnel.
The main job of the field program was to evaluate the individual and to give the Unit Commander an opinion on the individual’s assets and liabilities.
Except for extreme cases, decisions about enlisted men with behavioral problems were left to the Unit Commander. Most cases evaluated by the psychiatric service occurred soon after the trainees arrived at Fort Jackson . Most problems resulted from the stresses of Army life, and problems arising from separation from the home environment. Although most trainees were able to overcome their anxiety by the third week of Basic Combat Training, a small percentage persisted in their symptomatic behavior and was referred to the MACD. The decentralized approach coupled with the use of the life history form resulted in a more effective evaluation program. In addition to the Field Service, the Mental Hygiene Consultation Division operated a psychiatric ward for psychotic patients, a hospital consultation service, a stockade consultation service, and a dependent consultation facility.
Ten West Point Cadets
During the Summer of 1967, ten West Point cadets completed their Cadet Army Orientation Training with the 3d Training Brigade, which trains men specifically for duty in Vietnam . The cadets were assigned a 55-man platoon, and acting as platoon leaders, they performed many of the duties of a newly-assigned second lieutenant. In so doing they gained first-hand knowledge of the duties and responsibilities of a junior officer.
They were responsible for preparing their platoons for inspections, troop conduct during training, handling personal problems, and observing their men in training. The cadets, who were in their third and fourth year at West Point, worked with their units for four weeks, finishing on 28 July, just prior to taking summer leave. This was the second time here for two of the cadets. Cadet Albert F. Leister, whose father is a lieutenant colonel assigned in Caracas, Venezuela, completed basic training at Fort Jackson in August 1964. Cadet Allen S. Parker, of Alexandria Virginia, came into the Army at Fort Jackson before moving to Fort Gordon, Georgia, for basic training, which he also completed in August 1964.
A Gold Star
According to the South Carolina Savings Bond Division, Fort Jackson was the first Class I Army Installation to receive the Minuteman Flag. On 28 November 1961, Major General Paul L. Mayo, Chief of Finance at that time, came to Fort Jackson to present the first Minuteman Flag. For each of the following four years, this installation received the White Star for maintaining an outstanding participation of 9O% or above.
A ceremony was conducted on 7 August 1967 in front of Post Headquarters to award the US Treasury Department Minuteman Flag with one gold service star. Mr. Harold E. Dunlap, South Carolina Savings Bond Director, and Mrs. Done Damuth, Mrs. US Savings Bond 1967, made the presentation. Brigadier General E. B. Roberts, Acting Commander, accepted the flag on behalf of the Fort, after which it was hoisted in front of Post Headquarters.
The Minuteman Flag with one gold service star, which is the Treasury Department’s highest award, was representative of five years of above 907. participation in the Savings Bond Program by personnel at Fort Jackson . Fort Jackson was the first Army installation to receive this highest commendation.
Armed Forces Management Association
A chapter of the Armed Forces Management Association (AFMA) was formed at Fort Jackson in August 1967.
An organization formed to help keep interested people abreast of the latest developments in management and related fields by presenting guest speakers, and having members exchange views, held monthly luncheon meetings. At these meetings, guest speakers who talked about advances made in the field of management were presented. Membership was open to all military and civilian personnel of the Department of the Army as well as reserve and retired military personnel.
Brigadier General E. B. Roberts, Deputy Commanding General of Fort Jackson, plunked down a quarter at the cashier’s window in the Fort Jackson Federal Credit Union on 9 February 1967 and became the ten thousandth member to join the union.
Colonel John S. Baskin, the holder of membership card number one, and President of the Board of Directors, presented General Roberts the ten thousandth card. Colonel Baskin, the Commanding Officer of Special Troops, helped organize the credit union in 1960. Before the informal presentation, C. 0. Gray, manager of the credit union, explained: “We started 30 June 1960 with a membership of six and assets of $129. Today, we have assets in excess of three million dollars and over 6,000 active members. The growth has been tremendous and the union is very sound financially.”
It is felt that the credit union owes its growth to the high interest rate on savings (67 a year), the low rate of interest on loans (17 a month on the unpaid balance), and its security.
The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare chartered and supervised the credit union, sending federal examiners to inspect regularly. In addition, the Audit Division of the Post Comptroller’s Office and the Supervisory Committee audit the books periodically.
There was also a Civilian Employees’ Credit Union chartered on Post by the State of South Carolina on 26 March 1967. Membership in 1967 had grown to 1,359, with assets of $400,489.
Modern Community Relations
The Department of Medicine, US Army Hospital, presented a display on the current management of meningococcemia and meningococcal meningitis at the South Carolina Medical Association Meeting held at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, during May 1967. The display was well received, particularly since this specific illness occurs only sporadically in civilian medical practice.
National Children’s Dental Health Week, 5-11 February 1967, was an out standing success through the efforts of the Preventive Dentistry Officer. An original marionette show with a Preventive Dentistry theme was presented in addition to regular distribution of printed material. The presentation was so effective that a local television station invited the presenters (Major Joseph Kaziusky and wife) to present the show on two area children television programs.
Such close liaison between the civilian and military community was a far cry from the strained relations which existed during the epidemic in the early history of “ Camp Jackson .”
Data Processing Division
The computer age became a reality at Fort Jackson during 1967. At the close of the year, there were 19 systems in operation, furnishing Post activities with a total of 343 reports. Moreover, all indications were that this was only the beginning. Systems were under development that would provide quality management and accounting information in a quantity and array never before anticipated.
One of the major improvements in the Data Processing Division was the movement to a new building. At its previous location the dust, humidity, and temperature controls were inadequate for the sensitive machinery. Recognizing the problem, a newly constructed Battalion Headquarters and classroom building was diverted for use by Data Processing until the proposed Automatic Data Processing Center programmed for Fiscal Year 1969 could become a reality.
The Data Processing Center was reorganized as a service center with data conversion, i.e., card punching and verifying, decentralized and located at various using activities.
Another progress sign was the implementation of the Third US Army Standardized Data System. Also, preparation was begun on the US Continental Army Command Class One Automated System (COCOAS) which will be implemented in the future.
USAR and NC Support
Every summer approximately 6,000 United States Army Reserve (USAR) and National Guard (NC) officers and men converge on Fort Jackson to receive their Annual Active Duty Training. The Summer of 1967 was no exception. They came from all over South Carolina, North Carolina, Alabama, Kentucky, and even some from New York City . Fort Jackson, being centrally located in the Southern states, was both convenient and available to the Reserve units. Plans were made far in advance for their duty here. Large units, such as the 108th Division (Training) from North and South Carolina and the 100th Division (Training) from Kentucky, were satellited on the four Training Brigades. They took over the task of training soldiers from the permanent party cadre during their two- week stay. Other units, such as the 3398th Reception Station Unit, 3345th Hospital Unit and the 3298th Medical Detachment (DC) from South Carolina, Alabama, and New York City, respectively, were satellited on these units to per form the jobs indicated by their titles. The Fort Jackson permanent party personnel observed and were always available to answer questions or give suggestions. Some of the Reserve personnel received special training during their two weeks to better prepare them to carry out their mission. Some of this training included the Drill Sergeant School; Chemical, Biological and Radiological training; Cooks and Bakers School; and many others, all conducted by Fort Jackson’s permanent party cadre for the benefit of the Reserves. Fort Jackson took pride in this important support of America ’s civilian Army.
Looking Toward The Future
With the establishment of the modern volunteer Army in 1970 and the need to promote the attractiveness of service life, construction peaked in an effort to modernize facilities and improve services.
In June 1973, Fort Jackson was designated as a U.S. Army Training Center, where young men and women are taught to think, look and act as soldiers - always. Through the year, changes have been made to enhance training. Victory Tower, an apparatus designed to complement basic combat training, is used to reinforce the skills and confidence of the individual soldier. Field training exercises (FTX) were incorporated into advanced individual training (AIT) so soldiers would have an opportunity to practice MOS and common skills in a field environment.
By 1988, initial entry training (IET) strategy was implemented. The standard unit of training was the platoon. Training focused on hands-on skill development rather than platoon instruction.
Soldier Support Institute
In April 1991, the Base Closure and Realignment Commission nominated Fort Benjamin Harrison for closure and the transfer of the Soldier Support Institute to Fort Jackson, South Carolina. The transfer began officially in October 1994 and was completed September 30, 1995. The U.S. Army Soldier Support Institute at Fort Jackson, is composed of the Adjutant General, Finance, Recruiting and Retention Schools, the NCO Academy, and the Army Element of the School of Music.
Chaplain Center and School
As part of Fort Jackson's continuing growth and expansion of its role in shaping tomorrow's army, the United States Army Chaplain Center and School, a complex costing approximately $7.4 million, "broke ground" August 1, 1995, near the crest of Tank Hill on Lee Road as part of the 1993 Base Realignment and Closure program.
Along with the school came a staff of 110 who train approximately 1,800 chaplains and chaplain assistants annually for ministry to soldiers and their families in peace and war. The school's locations have been quite diverse, ranging from a two-year stay at Harvard University during World War II to Fort Slocum, New York. Other locations include Camp Henry Knox, Kentucky, Fort Wayne, Michigan, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey prior to coming to Fort Jackson. For the first time, the Chaplain School occupied a building built from the ground up for its use.
DoD Polygraph Institute
As part of the Base Realignment and Closure, in June 1999, the DoD Polygraph Institute moved from Fort McClellan, Alabama to its present location at Fort Jackson, South Carolina.
Fort Jackson continues to win awards as we move toward our vision of the future. The goal is to make Fort Jackson the finest living, working and training environment it can be. "Victory Starts Here", as it has since 1917.